Bronchopneumonia with interstitial pneumonia (BIP) of feedlot cattle is characterized by gross and histologic lesions of cranioventral bronchopneumonia (BP) and caudodorsal interstitial pneumonia. This study described the characteristics and frequency of BIP in western Canadian feedlot cattle and identified epidemiologic differences between BIP and either BP or acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP). The study of 9909 deaths on 4 western Canadian feedlots included 1105 BIP, 1729 BP, and 878 AIP cases. A population of 55 cases with gross, histopathology, and microbiology data was used to validate the primary data set. BIP was the second most common reason for death (or euthanasia) from respiratory disease (1105/9909 cases), and the observed frequency was twice what was expected from random concurrence of BP and AIP. Based on logistic regression models, epidemiologic characteristics of BIP were comparable to those of BP, although BIP cases were more chronic with more instances of clinical illness prior to death. BIP was epidemiologically distinct from AIP. Specifically, BIP more frequently affected steers than heifers, deaths occurred earlier in the feeding period at lower body weights and lower daily weight gains, and BIP cases had longer durations from the first clinical illness to death and more separate instances of clinical illness prior to death. Furthermore, death from BIP mainly occurred in winter and fall, while death from AIP was most frequent in summer. These findings define BIP as a unique condition of feedlot cattle and suggest that chronic BP may promote the development of fatal interstitial lung disease in at-risk cattle.